Implementation Research (N=13)



Definition 1: Implementation research is used as a general term for research that focuses on the question "What is happening?" in the design, implementation, administration, operation, services, and outcomes of social programs.1 In the field of evaluation research, implementation studies are sometimes contrasted with impact studies, which measure the difference between "what is happening" and "what would have happened" in the program's absence. But although implementation studies do not estimate the impacts programs have on clients and other stakeholders, they do more than simply describe program experiences—implementation studies also assess and explain. That is, they not only ask, "What is happening?" but also "Is it what is expected or desired?" and "Why is it happening as it is?"
Source: A Guide to Implementation Research, by Alan Werner www.urban.org/pubs/implementationresearch/
Focus: General

Definition 2: Implementation research: Research into the delivery of efficient, sustainable and effective services, appropriate structure of health systems, the policy process and into other components which are necessary to bring new and old control interventions into the routine practice of national health systems (24). The overall objective of implementation research is to improve access to efficacious interventions by developing practical solutions to common, critical problems in the implementation of these interventions. Implementation research will identify common implementation problems and their main determinants, develop practical solutions and determine the best way to introduce these new implementation strategies.(25)
Source: Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization www.who.int/tdr/topics/ir/default.htm
Focus: World Health

Definition 3: [Implementation research is] “the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings and hence to reduce inappropriate care”. The term implementation research is widely used in Europe and is equivalent to the Canadian term knowledge translation.
Souce: University of Toronto www.ktp.utoronto.ca
Focus: Health Care

Definition 4: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and interventions to enable them to use research findings more effectively.
Source: BMC Health Services Research http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-3-22
Focus: Health Services Research


Definition 5: Implementation research is that subset of HSR that focuses on how to promote the uptake and successful implementation of evidence-based interventions and policies that have, over the past decade, been identified through systematic reviews. Implementation research is used as a general term for research that focuses on the question “What is happening?” in the design, implementation, administration, operation, services, and outcomes of social programmes; it also asks, “Is it what is expected or desired?” and “Why is it happening as it is?” [27]. In the health field, implementation research often encompasses “impact research”, which includes both research aimed at understanding what is happening during the processes of implementing changes in policy or practice, and intervention studies that are designed to compare different approaches to implementing change. Implementation research is often multidisciplinary, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative approaches that require expertise in epidemiology, statistics, anthropology, sociology, health economics, political science, policy analysis, ethics, and other disciplines.
Source: Public Library of Science http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0030186
Focus: International Health

Definition 6: Implementation research is used as a general term for research that focuses on the question of "what is happening and why" in the design, implementation, administration, operation, services, and outcomes of social programs. Implementation research explores fundamental questions about how programs function—what the real (as opposed to nominal) goals of the program are, whether those goals are internally consistent and shared among multiple stakeholders, what administrative and management procedures are engaged in the pursuit of the goals, how the sequence and timing of client activities are designed, whether these operations reflect the intent of the program designers, how well the program is achieving its goals, how policy is changed by frontline staff decisions, and whether clients are reacting to the program in ways intended by its designers. Implementation analyses can supplement and complement impact evaluations by providing information to interpret results from these studies; yielding more immediate suggestive evidence, such as hypotheses on how different components of the program might contribute to overall effects; and identifying lessons for improving policy and practice.
Source: The Urban Institute www.urban.org/toolkit/data-methods/implementation.cfm
Focus: Economic and Social Policy Research

Definition 7: Implementation research consists of scientific investigations that support movement of evidence-based, effective health care approaches (e.g., as embodied in guidelines) from the clinical knowledge base into routine use. These investigations form the basis for health care implementation science. Implementation science consists of a body of knowledge on methods to promote the systematic uptake of new or underused scientific findings into the systematic uptake of new or underused scientific findings into the usual activities of regional and national health care and community organizations, including individual practice sites.
Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00364.x
Focus: Health Care

Definition 8: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based practices into routine practice, and, hence, to improve the quality and effectiveness of health services and care.
Source: Implementation Science http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1436009
Focus: Health Services Research

Definition 9: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and interventions to enable them to use research findings more effectively.
Source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/3/22
Focus: Health Care

Definition 10: Dissemination and implementation research intends to bridge the gap between public health, clinical research, and everyday practice by building a knowledge base about how health information, interventions, and new clinical practices are transmitted and translated for public health and health care service use in specific settings. Unfortunately, there continues to be great variation in how these terms are used.
Source: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-06-039.html
Focus: Health Care

Definition 11: Implementation research is used as a general term for research that focuses on the question of "what is happening and why" in the design, implementation, administration, operation, services, and outcomes of social programs.
Source: http://www.urban.org/toolkit/data-methods/implementation.cfm
Focus: Economic and Social Policy Research

Definition 12: The main purpose of traditional implementation research has been to identify the factors relevant to implementation success [6].
Source: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/8360/26341/01174728.pdf?arnumber=1174728
Focus: Information Systems

Definition 13: Implementation research consists of scientific investigations that support movement of evidence-based, effective health care approaches (e.g., as embodied in guidelines) from the clinical knowledge base into routine use. These investigations form the basis for health care implementation science. Implementation science consists of a body of knowledge on methods to promote the systematic uptake of new or underused scientific findings into the usual activities of regional and national health care and community organizations, including individual practice sites.
Source: http://www.springerlink.com/content/pt03425328185036/
Focus: Health Services Research