This page will link to over 50 classification systems including taxonomies, frameworks, and models, that can be used when designing or describing interventions to promote the use of evidence in practice or policy.

Links to:
Taxonomies to classify interventions

Frameworks to classify interventions

Lists to classify interventions

Other systems to classify interventions


Abraham C, Michie S: A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychol 2008, 27: 379-387.

Abraham C, Kok G, Schaalma H, Luszczynska A: Health Promotion. In The International Association of Applied Psychology Handbook of Applied Psychology. Edited by Martin PR, Cheung FM, Knowles MC, Kyrios M, Overmier JB, Prieto JM. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.; 2011.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-Patient Safety Network. Approach to Improving Safety. . 2013.

Albrecht L, Archibald M, Arseneau D, Scott SD: Development of a checklist to assess the quality of reporting of knowledge translation interventions using the Workgroup for Intervention Development and Evaluation Research (WIDER) recommendations. Implement Sci 2013, 8: 52.

Bartholomew LK, Parcel GS, Kok G, Gottlieb N: Planning Health Promotion Programs: Intervention Mapping. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2011.

Best A, Hiatt RA, Norman CD: Knowledge integration: conceptualizing communications in cancer control systems. Patient Educ Couns 2008, 71: 319-327.

Canadian Population Health Initiative. An environmental scan of research transfer strategies. 2001. Canadian Institute for Health Information.

Cane J, O'Connor D, Michie S: Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research. Implement Sci 2012, 7: 37.

Carlson JJ, Sullivan SD, Garrison LP, Neumann PJ, Veenstra DL: Linking payment to health outcomes: a taxonomy and examination of performance-based reimbursement schemes between healthcare payers and manufacturers. Health Policy 2010, 96: 179-190.

Century J, Cassata A, Rudnick M, Freeman C: Measuring enactment of innovations and the factors that affect implementation and sustainability: moving toward common language and shared conceptual understanding. J Behav Health Serv Res 2012, 39: 343-361.

Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. EPOC resources for review authors. . 2010.

Cohen DA, Scribner R: An STD/HIV prevention intervention framework. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2000, 14: 37-45.

Czaja SJ, Schulz R, Lee CC, Belle SH: A methodology for describing and decomposing complex psychosocial and behavioral interventions. Psychol Aging 2003, 18: 385-395.

Damschroder LJ, Aron DC, Keith RE, Kirsh SR, Alexander JA, Lowery JC: Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science. Implement Sci 2009, 4: 50.

Dixon D, Johnston M. Health Behaviour Change Competency Framework: Competences to deliver interventions to change lifestyle behaviours that affect health. 1-46. 10-11-2010. NHS Health Scotland.

Dogherty EJ, Harrison MB, Graham ID: Facilitation as a role and process in achieving evidence-based practice in nursing: a focused review of concept and meaning. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 7(2):76-89, 2010.

Dolan P, Hallsworth M, Halpern D, King D, Vlaev I. MINDSPACE; Influencing behaviour through public policy. 2010. Institute for Government, the Cabinet Office.

Dy SM, Taylor SL, Carr LH, Foy R, Pronovost PJ, Ovretveit J et al.: A framework for classifying patient safety practices: results from an expert consensus process. BMJ Qual Saf 2011, 20: 618-624.

Embry DD, Biglan A: Evidence-based kernels: fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2008, 11: 75-113.

Evenboer K, Huyghen AM, Tuinstra J, Knorth E, Reijneveld S: A Taxonomy of Care for Youth: Results of an Empirical Development Procedure. Research on Social Work Practice 2012, 22: 637-646.

Galbraith JS, Herbst JH, Whittier DK, Jones PL, Smith BD, Uhl G et al.: Taxonomy for strengthening the identification of core elements for evidence-based behavioral interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention. Health Educ Res 2011, 26: 872-885.

Geller ES, Berry TD, Ludwig TD, Evans RE, Gilmore MR, Clark SW: A conceptual framework for developing and evaluating behavior change interventions for injury control. Health Education Research 1990, 5: 125-137.

Gifford W, Davies B, Graham I, Tourangeau A, Woodend A, Lefebre N: Developing Leadership Capacity for Guideline Use: A Pilot Cluster Randomized Control Trial. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 2013, 10: 51-65.

Goel P, Ross-Degnan D, Berman P, Soumerai S: Retail pharmacies in developing countries: a behavior and intervention framework. Soc Sci Med 1996, 42: 1155-1161.

Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Macfarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O: Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Q 2004, 82: 581-629.

Hardeman W, Griffin S, Johnston M, Kinmonth AL, Wareham NJ: Interventions to prevent weight gain: a systematic review of psychological models and behaviour change methods. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000, 24: 131-143.

Hendriks AM, Jansen MW, Gubbels JS, De Vries NK, Paulussen T, Kremers SP: Proposing a conceptual framework for integrated local public health policy, applied to childhood obesity - the behavior change ball. Implement Sci 2013, 8: 46.

Keller LO, Strohschein S, Lia-Hoagberg B, Schaffer MA: Population-based public health interventions: practice-based and evidence-supported. Part I. Public Health Nurs 2004, 21: 453-468.
Lamb SE, Becker C, Gillespie LD, Smith JL, Finnegan S, Potter R et al.: Reporting of complex interventions in clinical trials: development of a taxonomy to classify and describe fall-prevention interventions. Trials 2011, 12: 125.

Lavis JN, Lomas J, Hamid M, Sewankambo NK: Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. Bull World Health Organ 2006, 84: 620-628.

Leeman J, Baernholdt M, Sandelowski M: Developing a theory-based taxonomy of methods for implementing change in practice. J Adv Nurs 2007, 58: 191-200.

Lowe D, Ryan R, Santesso N, Hill S: Development of a taxonomy of interventions to organise the evidence on consumers' medicines use. Patient Educ Couns 2011, 85: e101-e107.

Mazza D, Bairstow P, Buchan H, Chakraborty S, VanHecke O, Grech C et al.: Refining a taxonomy for guideline implementation: results of an exercise in abstract classification. Implementation Science 2013, 8: 32.

McMaster Health Forum. Health Systems Evidence. . 2013. 1-3-2013.

Michie S, Johnston M, Francis JJ, Hardeman W, Eccles MP: From Theory to Intervention: Mapping Theoretically Derived Behavioural Determinants to Behaviour Change Techniques. Applied Psychology: An International Review 2008, 57: 660-680.

Michie S, Ashford S, Sniehotta FF, Dombrowski SU, Bishop A, French DP: A refined taxonomy of behaviour change techniques to help people change their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours: the CALO-RE taxonomy. Psychol Health 2011, 26: 1479-1498.

Michie S, Hyder N, Walia A, West R: Development of a taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in individual behavioural support for smoking cessation. Addict Behav 2011, 36: 315-319.

Michie S, van Stralen MM, West R: The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implement Sci 2011, 6: 42.

Michie S, Whittington C, Hamoudi Z, Zarnani F, Tober G, West R: Identification of behaviour change techniques to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Addiction 2012, 107: 1431-1440.

Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Public health: ethical issues:a guide to the report. 2007. Nuffield Council on Bioethics.

Perdue WC, Mensah GA, Goodman RA, Moulton AD: A legal framework for preventing cardiovascular diseases. Am J Prev Med 2005, 29: 139-145.

Powell BJ, McMillen JC, Proctor EK, Carpenter CR, Griffey RT, Bunger AC et al.: A compilation of strategies for implementing clinical innovations in health and mental health. Med Care Res Rev 2012, 69: 123-157.

Proctor EK, Powell BJ, McMillen CJ: Implementation strategies: recommendations for specifying and reporting. Implement Sci 2013, 8: 139.

Reisman A: Transfer of technologies:a cross-disciplinary taxonomy. Omega 33 2005, 189-202.

Schulz R, Czaja SJ, McKay JR, Ory MG, Belle SH: Intervention taxonomy (ITAX): describing essential features of interventions. Am J Health Behav 2010, 34: 811-821.

Shojania KG, McDonald KM, Wachter RM, Owens DK. Closing The Quality Gap: A Critical Analysis of Quality Improvement Strategies, Volume 1—Series Overview and Methodology. Technical Review 9 (Contract No. 290-02-0017 to the Stanford University-UCSF Evidence-based Practices Center). 8-1-2004. Rockville, MD, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. AHRQ Publication No. 04-0051-1.

Stirman SW, Miller CJ, Toder K, Calloway A: Development of a framework and coding system for modifications and adaptations of evidence-based interventions. Implement Sci 2013, 8: 65.

Taylor SL, Dy S, Foy R, Hempel S, McDonald KM, Ovretveit J et al.: What context features might be important determinants of the effectiveness of patient safety practice interventions? BMJ Qual Saf 2011, 20: 611-617.


Ward V, Smith S, Carruthers S, Hamer S, House A. Knowledge brokering: Exploring the process of transferring knowledge into action. 2010. UK, University of Leeds.

West R: Tobacco control: present and future. Br Med Bull 2006, 77-78: 123-136.